Biochemical

Biochemical  Assessment

Nutrient plays an important role in many different metabolic processes, because human body needs a constant supply of adequate nutrients to be able to perform optimal metabolic processes. Biochemical assessment offers to detect a  number of nutrient-depletion stages, namely change in nutrient store, in body fluids, in functional level of tissues as well as in enzyme’s activity . Biochemical assessment has also the ability determine nutritional status at the earlier stage of deficiency, and therefore, enabling to make correction at early stage of nutritional inadequacy.

We provide the following analyses for biochemical assessment :

Vitamin A*)

Also Known As                  :   Retinol

Description       

Vitamin A testing is used to help diagnose vitamin A deficiency in people with symptoms, such as night blindness, or in people with diseases that impair intestinal absorption of nutrients and who are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Testing for this purpose is not common because vitamin A deficiencies. Sometimes testing may be used to detect toxic levels caused by ingestion of large amounts of vitamin A.

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for healthy vision, skin growth and integrity, bone formation, immune function, and embryonic development. It is required to produce photoreceptors in the eyes and to maintain the lining of the surface of the eyes and other mucous membranes.

The body cannot make vitamin A and must rely on dietary sources of vitamin A. Meat sources provide vitamin A (as retinol), while vegetable and fruit sources provide carotene (a substance that can be converted into vitamin A by the liver). Deficiencies in vitamin A can impair night vision, cause eye damage, and in severe cases, lead to blindness. Acute or chronic excesses of vitamin A can be toxic, cause a range of symptoms, and sometimes lead to birth defects.

Useful For 

  • To detect Vitamin A deficiency or Toxicity
  • Monitoring Vit A Theraphy

Methode                             

High Preasure Liquid Cromatography (HPLC)

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum
  • Plasma (heparine)

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours) and  no alcohol should be consumed for 24 hours before sample collection.

Volume of sample      :     200 µL

Sample preparation

  • Submission container is darkness plastic cup serum
  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted

Stabilitation sample

The plasma and serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :     NIST

Normal Value

Deficient: < 70 µmol/L

Low: < 1.05 µmol/L

Acceptable: ≥ 1.05  µmol/L

*) Accredited by KAN 17025:2008

Betacaroten*)

Also Known As                  :

Description                        

β-carotene (provitamin A) is a precursor form of vitamin A, and is an essential nutrient for the human diet. Beta-carotene is found in many foods and is sold as a dietary supplement. β-Carotene contributes to the orange color of many different fruits and vegetables.

Excess β-carotene is predominantly stored in the fat tissues of the body. The most common side effect of excessive β-carotene consumption is carotenodermia, a physically harmless condition that presents as a conspicuous orange skin tint arising from deposition of the carotenoid in the outermost layer of the epidermis

Beta-carotene deficiency may occur if you are malnourished. It can also occur if your body has trouble absorbing fats through the digestive tract such as with: Long-term (chronic) lung disease called cystic fibrosis, Pancreas problems such as swelling and inflammation (pancreatitis) or the organ not producing enough enzymes (pancreatic insufficiency), Small intestine disorder called celiac disease

Useful For                          

  • To detect Betacaroten deficiency or Toxicity
  • Monitoring Betacaroten Theraphy

Methode                            

High Preasure Liquid Cromatography (HPLC)

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum
  • Plasma (heparine)

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours) and  no alcohol should be consumed for 24 hours before sample collection.

Volume of sample  :   200 µL

  • Submission container is darkness plastic cup serum
  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted

Stabilitation sample

The plasma and serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  NIST

Normal Value

Normal: 0.3 – 0.6µmol/L

*) Accredited by KAN 17025:2008

Vitamin E*)

Also Known As                  :   alpha tocopherol

Description                        

Vitamin E contributes to the normal maintenance of biomembranes the vascular system, and the nervous system, and provides antioxidant protection for vitamin A. The level of vitamin E in the plasma or serum after a 12- to 14-hour fast reflects the individual’s reserve status.

Currently, the understanding of the specific actions of vitamin E is very incomplete. The tocopherols (vitamin E and related fat-soluble compounds) function as antioxidants and free-radical scavengers, protecting the integrity of unsaturated lipids in the biomembranes of all cells and preserving retinol from oxidative destruction. Vitamin E is known to promote the formation of prostacyclin in endothelial cells and to inhibit the formation of thromboxanes in thrombocytes, thereby minimizing the aggregation of thrombocytes at the surface of the endothelium. Those influences on thrombocyte aggregation may be of significance in relation to risks for coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

Useful For                          

  • To detect Vitamin E deficiency
  • Evaluation of individuals with motor and sensory neuropathies
  • Monitoring Vit E Theraphy
  • Evaluation of persons with intestinal malabsorption of lipids

Methode                            

High Preasure Liquid Cromatography (HPLC)

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum
  • Plasma (heparine)

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours) and  no alcohol should be consumed for 24 hours before sample collection.

Volume of sample  :  200 µL

Sample Preparation      

  • Submission container is darkness plastic cup serum
  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted

Stabilitation sample

The plasma and serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  NIST

Normal Value

Deficient: < 11.6µmol/L

Low: < 11.6-16.2 µmol/L

Acceptable: ≥ 16.2  µmol/L

*) Accredited by KAN 17025:2008

Vitamin D*)

Also Known As                  :   25-hydroxyvitamin D

Description                        

Vitamin D is a family of compounds that is essential for the proper growth and formation of teeth and bones. This test measures the level of vitamin D in the blood.

Two forms of vitamin D can be measured in the blood, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the major form found in the blood and is the relatively inactive precursor to the active hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Because of its long half-life and higher concentration, 25-hydroxyvitamin D is commonly measured to assess and monitor vitamin D status in individuals.

Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. The chemical structures of the types of vitamin D are slightly different, and they are named vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, which comes from plants) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, which comes from animals). The D2 form is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D3 is the form produced in the body and is also used in some supplements. Vitamin D2 and D3are equally effective when they are converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Some tests do not distinguish D2 and D3 forms of the vitamin and report only the total result. Newer methods, however, may report levels of both D2 and D3 and then add them together for a total level.

The main role of vitamin D is to help regulate blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, and (to a lesser extent) magnesium. Vitamin D is vital for the growth and health of bone; without it, bones will be soft, malformed, and unable to repair themselves normally, resulting in diseases called rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D has also been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many other tissues and to help regulate the immune system. These other functions have implicated vitamin D in other disorders, such as autoimmunity and cancer.

People at higher risk of deficiency include the elderly or obese people, people who don’t get enough sun exposure, people with darker skin, and people who take certain medications for long periods of time. Adequate sun exposure is typically estimated to be two periods per week of 5-20 minutes. People who do not have adequate sun exposure may obtain the vitamin D that they need from food sources or supplements.

Useful For                          

  • To determine if you have a vitamin D deficiency
  • if you are receiving vitamin D supplementation, to determine if it is adequate

Methode                            

CLIA LIASON®  assay kit

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours)

Volume of sample  :   1 mL

Sample Preparation

  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted
  • Do not use EDTA Plasma

Stabilitation sample

The plasma and serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  : LIASON® Multi-Control Tumour Markers Set

Normal Value

Acceptable : ≥ 30 nmol/L

Low < 25 nmol/L

Deficient ≤ 12 nmol/L

*) Accredited by KAN 17025:2008

Zinc*)

Also Known As                  :    –

Description        

Zinc (Zn) is a required co-factor in the action of over 200 enzymes and its measurement in biological tissues is of great importance in studies of metabolism and disease. It has been recently estimated that as many as 2 billion people worldwide are Zn deficient, causing a variety of clinical symptoms, including restricted growth, immune dysfunction and cognitive impairment. For the elderly, Zn deficiency has major implications on health outcomes relevant to age-related illness. Even in high income countries, Zn deficiency is highly prevalent and may significantly contribute to high incidence of cancer stemming from its essential role in DNA maintenance and repair. Changes in the Zn status in various neurological diseases have also been the focus of considerable attention in recent years.

Useful For                          

  • To detect Zinc deficiency
  • Monitoring Zinc Theraphy

Methode                            

Atomic Absorption

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum

Patient preparation

  • arm’s patient should be cleaned first from powder or the other impurities
  • Fasting Recommended

Volume of sample  :   600 µL

Sample Preparation

  • Sample process in smooke free laboratory
  • The plebothomist must wear powder free gloves when taking blood’s patient
  • Acid washed cup serum

Stabilitation sample

The serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  Randox

Normal Value

Undesirable :  < 11.5  µmol/L Low : 11.5 – 13.0 µmol/L Acceptable : 13.0 – 19.0 µmol/L High : > 23.0  µmol/L

*) Accredited by KAN 17025:2008

Vitamin C

Also Known As                  :   Ascorbic Acid

Description        

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid or simply ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. Vitamin C is required for the enzymatic amidation of neuropeptides, production of adrenal cortical steroid hormones, promotion of the conversion of tropocollagen to collagen, and metabolism of tyrosine and folate. It also plays a role in lipid and vitamin metabolism and is a powerful reducing agent or antioxidant. Specific actions include: activation of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, antioxidation, interception and destruction of free radicals, preservation and restoration of the antioxidant potential of vitamin E, and blockage of the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. In addition, vitamin C appears to function in a variety of other metabolic processes in which its role has not been well characterized.

Prolonged deficiency of vitamin C leads to the development of scurvy, a disease characterized by an inability to form adequate intercellular substance in connective tissues. This results in the formation of swollen, ulcerative lesions in the gums, mouth, and other tissues that are structurally weakened. Early symptoms may include weakness, easy fatigue and listlessness, as well as shortness of breath, and aching joints, bones, and muscles.

Useful For                          

  • To detect Vitamin C deviciency

Methode                            

Spectrofotometri UV VIS

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum + TCA 1% (1:1)

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours)

Volume of sample  :   1 mL

Sample Preparation

  • Submission container is darkness plastic cup serum
  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted
  • Do not use EDTA Plasma

Stabilitation sample

The serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  NIST

Normal Value

Low : ≤ 0.4 mg/dl

Normal : 0.4-1.5 mg/dL

High : > 1.5 mg/dL

Ferritin

Also Known As                  :    –

Description        

Ferritin is a protein that contains iron and is the primary form of iron stored inside of cells. The small amount of ferritin that is released and circulates in the blood is a reflection of the total amount of iron stored in the body. This test measures the amount of ferritin in the blood.

Useful For                          

  • To determine your body’s total iron storage capacity;
  • To help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload

Methode                            

CLIA LIASON®  assay kit

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours)

Volume of sample  :   1 mL

Sample Preparation

  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted
  • Do not use EDTA Plasma

Stabilitation sample

The serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  LIASON® Multi-Control Tumour Markers Set

Normal Value                    :  –

PCR

Also Known As                  :    –

Description        

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. These include DNA cloning for sequencing, DNA-based phylogeny, or functional analysis of genes; the diagnosis of hereditary diseases; the identification of genetic fingerprints (used in forensic sciences and paternity testing); and the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Useful For                          

  • Gene expression analysis
  • SNP detection
  • Pathogen detection

Methode                            

Real Time PCR

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Whole blood (we provide DNA extraction)

Folic Acid

Also Known As                  :    –

Description        

Folic Acid  is one of many essential vitamins needed for copying and synthesizing DNA, producing new cells, and supporting nerve and immune functions. As a water-soluble B vitamin, it’s naturally present in some foods, added to others and available as a dietary supplement in the form of folic acid.

Useful For                          

  • To detect Folic Acid deficiency

Methode                            

Elisa Assay Kit

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours)

Volume of sample  :   1 mL

Sample Preparation

  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted
  • Do not use EDTA Plasma, citrated or heparinized Plasma

Stabilitation sample

The serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  Inhouse Quality Control (Pooled Serum)

Normal Value

Deficiency : <2 ng/mL

Low : 2.0-4.0 ng/mL

Normal : 4.0 -18 ng/mL

Lycopene

Also Known As                  :    –

Description        

Lycopene is a naturally occurring chemical that gives fruits and vegetables a red color. It is one of a number of pigments called carotenoids. Lycopene is found in watermelons, pink grapefruits, apricots, and pink guavas. It is found in particularly high amounts in tomatoes and tomato products.

Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that may help protect cells from damage. People take lycopene for preventing heart disease, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis); and cancer of the prostate, breast, lung, bladder, ovaries, colon, and pancreas. Lycopene is also used for treating human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which is a major cause of uterine cancer. Some people also use lycopene for cataracts and asthma.

Useful For                          

  • To detect Lycopene deficiency or Toxicity
  • Monitoring Lycopene Theraphy

Methode                            

High Preasure Liquid Cromatography (HPLC)

Sample Required

Sample Type

  • Serum
  • Plasma (heparine)

Patient preparation

Fasting overnight (12-14 hours) and  no alcohol should be consumed for 24 hours before sample collection.

Volume of sample  :   200 µL

Sample Preparation

  • Submission container is darkness plastic cup serum
  • Hemolysis, lypemic, and thawing sample aren’t permitted

Stabilitation sample

The serum samples are stable in the dark at 2-8°C for minimum of 12 hours. At -20 °C  is stable for a minimum of 1 month. At-70 °C is table for at least 16 months

Quality control                  :  NIST

Normal Value                    :  –